Cladonia carneola resembles the common C. fimbriata due to the finely sorediate podetia but is distinguished by the pale ochraceous brown colour of the pycnidia and apothecia and by the yellowish thallus colour due to the presence of usnic acid. Rarely, it may be confused with rare pigment-missing forms of the otherwise red-fruited C. pleurota. The latter, however, has coarser soredia, wider scyphi and additionally, the atypical forms are usually intermixed with normal forms containing the red pigment.
In central Europe, C. carneola typically grows on decaying wood in mountain spruce forests. However, its ecological amplitude is generally wider. It is a boreal-montane species, often also growing on humus, peat or bark of conifers. It may be found above the upper tree line and is even known from anthropogenic stands at lower elevations (Palice & Soldán 2004). In the Czech Republic, the species mainly occurs in the mountains, especially in the Šumava Mts.
Literature: Palice Z. & Soldán Z. (2004): Lichen and bryophyte species diversity on toxic substrates in the abandoned sedimentation basins of Chvaletice and Bukovina. – In: Kovář P. [ed.], Natural recovery of human-made deposits in landscape (biotic interactions and ore/ash-slag artificial ecosystems), p. 200–221, Academia, Praha. Malíček J., Bouda F., Kocourková J., Palice Z. & Peksa O. (2011): Zajímavé nálezy vzácných a přehlížených dutohlávek v České republice. – Bryonora 48: 34–50. Steinová J., Bouda F., Malíček J., Palice Z., Peksa O., Svoboda D. & Vondrák J. (2015): Poznámky k rozšíření a ekologickým preferencím zástupců skupiny Cladonia coccifera v České republice. – Bryonora 55: 4–19.taxonomic classification:
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