Toniniopsis separabilis (Nyl.) Gerasimova & A. Beck

A widespread epiphytic lichen, usually forming dark, green- and brown-pigmented apothecia with narrowly cylindrical (bacilliform) ascospores inside. However, some populations may lack pigments, resulting in brown to completely pale fruiting bodies (called albinomorphs). These forms are then potentially confused with other species, e.g. Bacidina phacodes. The granular grey-green thallus resembles the unrelated species B. rubella, from which it is virtually indistinguishable in its sterile state.

Toniniopsis separabilis is primarily the forest species, growing on nutrient-rich bark of various deciduous trees in deciduous and mixed forests, especially at middle and higher elevations. In some parts of its range, it may also be abundant on conifers. The lichen's optimal conditions are found in beech woodlands, but the species may occur in managed forests abundant in deciduous trees (e.g. on the bark of fungi-infected trees) as well. In moist mountain areas of the country (such as the Šumava Mts), B. subincompta is more common and may grow also on old solitary trees outside the forest. The species is sensitive to both acidification and excessive eutrophication, therefore it is very rare in some areas of the Czech Republic (such as northern Bohemia). Potentially, it could serve as a reliable bioindicator of well-preserved forests and biologically valuable types of managed forests.

Recently, a similar species T. dissimilis was described from several European countries. It differs in having a smooth to rather thick, tuberculate, warted or subsquamulose thallus and dark brown hypothecium, merging into the coloration of the exciple downwards (Gerasimova et al. 2021). This new species occurs very probably also in the Czech Republic.

Literature: Gerasimova J., Urbanavichene I., Urbanavichus G. & Beck A. (2021): Morphological and phylogenetic analyses of Toniniopsis subincompta s. lat. (Ramalinaceae, Lecanorales) in Eurasia. ‒ Lichenologist 53: 171‒183.

taxonomic classification:

Ascomycota Lecanoromycetes Lecanorales Ramalinaceae Toniniopsis

most frequented synonyms:Bacidia subincompta, Toniniopsis subincompta

Red List (Liška & Palice 2010):VU – vulnerable

Occurrence in the Czech Republic

All records: 323, confirmed 265. One click on a selected square displays particular record(s), including their source(s).


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Altitude preferences

Distribution Timeline

Substrate type

Substrate preferences

© Botanický ústav AV ČR, v. v. i. 2020–2023